Introduction to Bedside Ultrasound

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PRE-PROCEDURE
INDICATIONS
  • Ultrasound is frequently used by non-radiologists in medical wards, intensive care units, operating rooms, emergency departments, and clinic offices. Traditional history and physical examination can be augmented with focused bedside ultrasonography.
  • Bedside ultrasound is useful for both diagnostic and procedural applications.

Procedural

  • Ultrasound-guided vascular access, both central and peripheral access
  • Ultrasound-guided paracentesis
  • Ultrasound-guided thoracentesis
  • Ultrasound-guided lumbar puncture
  • Ultrasound-guided regional nerve blocks
  • Soft tissue assessment for abscess or foreign body
  • Transvenous Pacemaker placement

Diagnostic

  • The FAST Exam
  • Ultrasound assessment of the Aorta
  • Gallbladder and biliary assessment
  • Lung ultrasound, such as for detection of pneumothorax, hemothorax, or CHF
  • Volume status assessment by IVC assessment
  • DVT evaluation
  • Basic Echocardiography, such as for pericardial effusion detection
  • Critical assessment of the code patient
  • Evaluation of the eye for Optic emergencies, such as retinal detachment
  • Renal ultrasound, such as for assessment of hydronephrosis
EQUIPMENT

Ultrasound Machine Basics

Components of the modern ultrasound machine include the monitor, keypad and function buttons, and various ultrasound probes.

Ultrasound Probes

  • The ultrasound probe transmits ultrasonic waves into the patient and receives them back for analysis and image production.
  • The linear probe has a flat top, which allows for more of an anatomically accurate image. This probe is used for most procedural applications.
  • The curvilinear probe has a curved top, and transmits and receives waves in a splayed fashion. This probe is used for most diagnostic applications.
  • The phased array probe has a flat and square top, and is most often used for echocardiography.
  • The endocavitary probe is most often used for transvaginal ultrasound.
  • Ultrasound probes should be properly oriented with the monitor during image acquistion.

PROCEDURE
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  • Clinical pearls providing practical clinical tips from medical experts
  • Patient safety guidelines consistent with Joint Commission and OHSA standards
  • Links to medical evidence and related procedures

POST-PROCEDURE
CARE
No postprocedure care is required.
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